This investigation will help you to:
- Direct Records and Proxies
- Fossil Pollen
- Ice Cores
- Sea Sediments
- Glacial Landforms and Sediments
- Tree Rings
- To learn more about the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2), visit the following web sites:
- To learn more about techniques for dating deep-sea sediments, visit the following web sites:
- To learn more about paleoclimates in the United States, visit the following web sites:
- Proxy Climatic Data, NOAA Paleoclimatology Program
This site lists and describes the widely-used proxy climate data types.
- Paleoclimates and Pollen
On this web site, information is offered on the background, trends, and evidence of paleoclimates.
- Fossil Pollen of the Colorado Plateau, Northern Arizona University
Learn why fossil pollen is a useful tool for determining paleoclimates.
- Fossil Groups: Spores and Pollen, USGS
Learn how pollen can yield records of vegetation and community changes over time by exploring this site.
- Investigating Climate Change of Western North America, USGS
Learn more about climate change and the study of the geological record for Western North America.
- Why Study Ice Cores, National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL)
This site includes a brief description about why ice cores are an important source of information.
- How is it done? NICL
This section of the National Ice Core Laboratory web site takes you step by step through the process of taking, obtaining, studying an ice core.
- Sea Sediments, Enviropedia
Learn more about sediments found on the sea floor and information that can be revealed by investigating these sediments, visit this site.
- What is a Glacier, National Snow and Ice Data Center
This web site provides information on glacial formation, movement, and associated landforms.
- Photo Gallery of Trees and Tree Rings, University of Tennessee
This web site provides photographs about tree-ring research. Each photograph is annotated with captions poses a thought-provoking question.
- Classic References in Dendrochronology, University of Tennessee
If you are in need of additional resources for tree ring research, visit this site.
- Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2, National Snow and Ice Data Center
This web site explores the retrieval of the longest deep-ice core available in history of its kind from the Northern Hemisphere.
- Magnetic Stripes and Isotopic Clocks, USGS
This web site provides information on astounding observations of ocean rocks that led to the unlocking of one of ocean's secrets.
- The Use of Biostratigraphy in Different Sediment Types
This site provides basic information on biostratigraphy in two main environments: terrestrial and marine.
- North American Drought: A Paleo Perspective, NOAA
This web site explores paleoclimatic data and how it can provide information about past droughts.
- Climatologist's Toolbox, University of Wisconsin
Learn how mud sediment in Walden Pond reveals evidence of its past environments by exploring this site.