Investigation 1: The Properties of Seawater


To learn more about the composition of seawater, visit the following web sites:

Seawater Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan
Page includes description of the chemical elements in seawater, the dissolved gasses in seawater, and the processes controlling seawater composition.

Seawater Composition, Seafriends
View a detailed breakdown of the percentages of all major and minor elements in seawater.


To learn more about why is the ocean salty, visit the following web sites:

General Characteristics of the World's Oceans-Ocean Salinity, Institute on Climate and Planet, NASA
Where is ocean salinity the highest? This page includes map of ocean salinity around the world and a cross section of ocean salinity versus depth.

Why is the Ocean Salty?, USGS
A brief explanation about Earth's salty oceans.

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Why is the Ocean Salty?, USGS
Discusses the origins of the oceans, sources of salt, and how the saltiness in the oceans has changed over time.


To learn more about the density of seawater, visit the following web sites:

Density of Ocean Water, University of Michigan
Discusses variables associated with sea water density.

Density of Seawater, George Mason University
Includes scientific equations for determining seawater density.


To learn more about plants and animals in the ocean, visit the following web sites:

The Living Sea, Oceans Alive!
Read about where animals and plants live within different layers of the oceans.

Planet Ocean, Discovery
Information geared for students about the vast oceans and the life in them.

Ocean Animals, Missouri Botanical Gardens
Learn about animals that inhabit the ocean.

IES Oceans Cover
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AGI's professional development programs for teachers are supported by generous contributions from corporate contributors of the American Geosciences Institute Foundation and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Foundation.