Modelling by hand "when the youngest rock is not on top" (PDF)

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San Andreas Fault line

ERN Item Type: 

  • Classroom Activities


Earth Learning Idea (ELI)


While the ‘Principle of superposition of strata’ states that younger rocks are found above older ones, there are certain unusual geological conditions causing older rocks to be found on top of younger ones. Through this activity, pupils can model the unusual geological conditions where the ‘Principle of superposition’ does not apply.

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NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas: