The U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework provides an interactive map of biomass production potential across the United States (at the time of writing, maps do not cover Alaska and Hawaii). The aim is to show how much biomass may be available for bioenergy production from the present day through to the year 2040.
Biofuels, biomass, hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, and wind make up the largest renewable energy resource group in the world. These resources are renewable and sustainable, so a statement of current reserves is generally hard to estimate, with limiting factors such as water, land and the materials required to build a facility often more important than the resource. Additionally, aside from biomass and biofuels, these energy resources do not produce a carbon footprint, except during construction.
Reading the pros and cons of biofuels from different viewpoints reveals numerous claims and counterclaims. This paper examines testable hypotheses from these claims and reports results of studies that may prove or disprove these hypotheses. Definitive proof is largely elusive due to limitations of data, research methodology, and poor handling of uncertainty. Costs and benefits of biofuels production and use are almost entirely estimated using assumptions, approximations, and rapidly obsolescing data. Unfortunately, these estimates are usually reported as single values, giving the reader no indication of the degree of uncertainty or range of likely values involved. Thus, the reliability of estimates is difficult to assess. The ethanol industry is undergoing a period of rapid expansion and technological innovation. Like other new industries in the past, innovation will lead to lower costs of production, lesser environmental impacts, and increasing efficiency at all levels, from crop production to consumption. Many problems cited below are likely to be solved or mitigated in the next 25 or even 10 years. The future of the industry depends on how well it can compete with other energy sources. The value to society of these subsidies and government policies that support the industry will only be definitively determined with better research that rigorously addresses the uncertainties involved.
The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy and using data from the Energy Information Administration, has produced flow charts showing the major sources and uses of energy in every U.S. state in the year 2014.