critical issues

Can volcanoes be dangerous even when they don't erupt?

From the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program FAQs:

"Definitely. Many stratovolcanoes have a plumbing system of hot acid water that progressively breaks down hard rock to soft, clay-rich material. The volcano is gradually weakened, and large parts may suddenly fail. Resulting water-rich landslides are especially dangerous because they can occur without any volcanic or seismic warning.

What kinds of hazards are associated with volcanic eruptions?

There are many different kinds of hazards associated with volcanic eruptions, depending on the type of volcano and eruption. Some volcanoes typically produce highly explosive eruptions, such as in the subduction zones of Alaska and the Pacific northwest, and others produce  less energetic eruptions, such as in Hawaii. Therefore, hazards detailed below are not necessarily relevant to every volcano.

Where can I find statistics about the supply and demand of metals?

The U.S. Geological Survey maintains statistics about the worldwide supply of metal resources, including copper and precious metals like gold and platinum. The USGS also tracks statistics on non-metal, industrial minerals like sand and crushed stone. The Energy Information Administration maintains data on the trade of energy minerals like coal, natural gas, petroleum, and uranium. 

Does flood risk for a particular location change over time?

FEMA National Flood Insurance Program:  

"Flood risk can, and does, change over time. Flood risks change for many reasons: new development, changes in levee classification, and environmental changes, to name a few. As a result FEMA is updating flood hazard maps across the country. These new flood maps, also, known as Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs), show flood risk at a property-by-property level.

How are tsunami early warnings issued?

In the U.S., tsunami early warnings are issued by two warning centers operated by the National Weather Service. The National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) monitors for earthquakes and issues tsunami advisories, watches, warnings, and information statements for Alaska, the U.S. mainland, U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, Canada, and U.S. interests in the Caribbean (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands)[1,2,3].

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