Here you will find resources to help educators and their students measure the amount of dissolved gas in a carbonated beverage; understand that volcanoes emit gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur; describe how volcanoes are part of the hydrosphere and water cycle; demonstrate awareness of how volcanoes can affect global temperatures; recognize that volcanoes are part of interactive systems on Earth.
Here you will find resources to help educators and their students understand why ash from volcanic eruptions can affect a much larger region than lava, pyroclastic flows, or lahars, define tephra and describe some the hazards it creates, interpret maps and graph data from volcanic eruptions to understand the range in scale of volcanic eruptions, understand the explosive force of a volcano is not the only factor that determines its potential to cause loss of life and property, interpret maps of wind speed and direction to predict the movement of volcanic ash.
Here you will find resources to help educators and their students measure and understand how volume, temperature, slope, and channelization affect the flow of fluid, apply an understanding of factors that control lava flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars (mudflows), apply understanding of topographic maps to predict lahar flow (mudflow) patterns from a given set of data, describe volcanic hazards associated with various kinds of flows, become aware of the benefits of Earth science information in planning and evacuations and making decisions, show understanding of the nature of science and a controlled experiment.
Here you will find resources to help educators and their students make a topographic map from a model, understand the meanings of contour line, contour interval and relief, interpret topographic maps, recognize volcanic landforms on a topographic map and predict where lava would flow on them, understand basic relationships between magma composition and type of volcano formed.
Here you will find resources to help educators and their students find the latitude and longitude of volcanoes nearest their community, search for and describe patterns in the global distribution of volcanoes, make inferences about possible locations of future volcanic activity, understand that most volcanism occurs beneath the ocean, and understand that map projections distort regions near the poles and eliminate some data.