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Cover of C1419; Image credit: U.S. Geological Survey
2016, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

Natural scientists, like many other experts, face challenges when communicating to people outside their fields of expertise. This is especially true when they try to communicate to those whose background, knowledge, and experience are far distant from that field of expertise.

Cover of William Smith factsheet; Image credit: The Geological Society
2016, The Geological Society of London (GSL)

Known as the 'father of English geology', William Smith worked as a surveyor, building canals and draining marshes in England during the Industrial Revolution.

Cover of Water Resources factsheet; Image credit: The Geological Society
2016, The Geological Society of London (GSL)

Access to clean water is becoming increasingly difficult for millions worldwide, and responsible management of water resources is more important than ever. Find out more in our water resources factsheet.

Cover of Water Hardness factsheet; Image credit: The Geological Society
2016, The Geological Society of London (GSL)

Have you ever noticed that tap water tastes different depending on where you are? Have you ever seen a white coating inside your kettle or the shower head, or found that the shower gel won't lather up? All these effects are caused by differences in the 'hardness' of the water.

Cover of Volcanoes factsheet; Image credit: The Geological Society
2016, The Geological Society of London (GSL)

What is a volcano? Where are they and why are they there? This fact sheet, produced for a broad general audience, gives an overview of significant eruptions and the volcanic products that can cause such devastation.

About the Research Database

The Critical Issues Research Database aggregates geoscience information products from state geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, professional societies, and geoscience information providers to aid decision makers as they address issues at the intersection of the geosciences and society.

We are continually adding new content to the database, so please check back frequently.

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