EarthComm Earth's Fluid Spheres: Oceans and Your Community Activity 4

Earth's Fluid Spheres book

El Nino and non-El Nino Conditions

  • "El Nino Theme Page" - TOGA - TAO, NOAA
    Page contains links to cover a wide range of topics, including definitions of El Nino and La Nina, impacts of El Nino, predicting El Nino, 3-D animations of El Nino temperatures, and information on finding El Nino data.
  • El Niño and Climate Prediction - NOAA
    Online article explains how to use the Internet to research El Nino. Includes multiple links on El Nino.
  • "NOAA El Nino Page"
    Site contains an image of current sea-surface temperature anomalies which is updated regularly. Site also contains links to El Nino images and information, including a list of El Nino-related web sites.
  • "El Niño and La Niña Tracing the Dance of Ocean and Atmosphere" - National Academy of Sciences (adobe pdf)

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The Southern Oscillation

  • "El Nino/La Nina Home" - NOAA Climate Prediction Center
    Includes links to information on ENSO forecasts, an "expert assessment" (updated weekly), ENSO figures (updated weekly), and a list of FAQ. Also includes an online tutorial which contains numerous color images.
  • "CDC's El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Information" - NOAA/CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center
    This site links to information on the science behind ENSO, current ocean/atmosphere conditions, impacts of ENSO on climate, forecasts, current research, and links to educational resources.

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  • El Nino Watch - NASA
    Find images of the Pacific from space (including sea surface images, water vapor, SST anomalies, surface winds, El Nino animations), an ENSO "primer" (a thorough review of ENSO, presented in audiovisual format with color images and text), links to related NASA research projects, and more.
  • "TOGA-TAO and the 1991-93 El Nino-Southern Oscillation Event" - McPhaden, M.J., NOAA/PMEL
    Online article examines data collected by the TOGA-TAO program. Includes color data images.

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Cause and Effect - El Nino

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To pose a question about El Nino to a scientist, visit the following web sites:

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To learn more about the technology used to study oceanic-atmospheric interactions, specifcally TOPEX/Poseidon and TAO, visit the following web sites:

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To learn more about La Nina, visit the following web sites:

  • "La Nina Page" - NOAA
    Includes links to general La Nina information, such as climate data for past La Nina events, forecasts, and the impacts of La Nina.
  • "What is La Nina?" - NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
    Site includes color animations comparing La Nina, El Nino, and "normal" conditions, a review of the impacts that La Nina has had on the global climate, and links to further information.
  • "El Nino/La Nina Home" - NOAA Climate Prediction Center
    Includes links to information on ENSO forecasts, an "expert assessment" (updated weekly), ENSO figures (updated weekly), and a list of FAQ. Also includes an online tutorial which contains numerous color images.

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