Data for this report were compiled from the Kentucky Groundwater Data Repository. The database query produced 6,170 analyses of barium from 1,019 wells and 259 springs throughout Kentucky; most of the sites had been sampled two or more times.
Iron is one of the most abundant elements in rocks and soils, and one of the most common problems in groundwater supplies. Rainwater seeping through soils and bedrock dissolves iron and carries it to wells and springs.
The Kentucky Geological Survey has developed a series of county groundwater resources reports that contain general information on hydrology, geology, topography, water supply and usage, and groundwater quality.
The Kentucky Groundwater Data Repository was initiated in 1990 by the Kentucky Geological Survey under mandate from the Kentucky legislature (KRS 151:035). The repository was established to archive and disseminate groundwater data collected by State agencies, other organizations, and independent researchers. The repository database currently contains information on more than 92,000 water wells and 5,100 springs, and also 58,000 suites of water-quality analyses (millions of individual analyte results). The water-well data include information such as location, usage, total depth, static water level, casing, and lithology (not available for all wells).
For almost two decades, the Iowa Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University Hygienic Laboratory, has monitored the quality of raw untreated groundwater from individual municipal wells. The size of this effort has varied through time, with available state and federal funding. Focus of the monitoring has evolved as well, in response to changes in society’s questions about the quality of our groundwater.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR), will use the current understanding of the Wood River Valley aquifer system to construct a MODFLOW numerical groundwater-flow model to simulate potential anthropogenic and climatic effects on groundwater and surface-water resources. This model will serve as a tool for water rights administration and water-resource management and planning. The study will be conducted over a 3-year period from late 2012 until model and report completion in 2015.
What is the Mississippi Embayment? The Mississippi embayment study area encompasses approximately 78,000 square miles in eight States and includes large parts of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, and smaller areas of Alabama, Illinois, Kentucky, and Missouri. The Mississippi embayment is essentially a basin that slopes toward the Gulf of Mexico and is filled with sediments of alternating sand, silt, and clay layers. There are two principal aquifers in the embayment-the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer (alluvial aquifer) and the middle Claiborne aquifer. The shallow alluvial aquifer is the primary source of groundwater for irrigation in the largely agricultural region, while the deeper middle Claiborne aquifer is a primary source of drinking water for many of the 5.2 million people living in the embayment. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting large-scale multidisciplinary regional studies of groundwater availability for the Nation. Studies comprise individual assessments of regional groundwater-flow systems that encompass varied terrains and document a comprehensive regional and national perspective of groundwater resources. Collectively, these studies are the foundation for the national assessment of groundwater availability and are conducted in cooperation with other Federal, State, local governments, and the private sector. Numerical groundwater-flow models are used in these studies to document effects of human activities and climate variability on groundwater levels, changes in aquifer storage, and flow between groundwater and surface-water bodies. As part of the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS), a numerical model was constructed of 13 layers over 78,000 square miles representing multiple aquifers and confining units for the period of 1870 to 2007. The model is a tool that was used to assess and better understand groundwater resources.
Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The basins north of San Francisco constitute one of the study units being evaluated.
Groundwater is an important resource for domestic, municipal, stock, and irrigation uses in southeastern Wyoming. Thirty-seven percent of water used in the tri-County area, which includes Laramie, Platte, and Goshen Counties, is from groundwater. Most groundwater use in the tri-County area is withdrawn from three primary aquifer groups: Quaternary-age unconsolidated-deposit aquifers, Tertiary-age units of the High Plains aquifer system, and Upper Cretaceous bedrock aquifers (Lance Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone). Authors include selected physical properties and chemicals found in water samples, describe sources and importance, and report maximum levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They also show concentration ranges for selected physical properties and chemicals in samples collected from the three primary aquifer groups in the tri-County area.