Floods

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Flooding is the most common and costliest natural hazard facing the United States. Each year, flooding causes billions of dollars in damages and dozens of deaths nationwide.

Basics

A flooded farm field. Image Copyright © Michael Collier. http://www.earthscienceworld.org/images

Flooding has many causes, including heavy rain, snow melting too fast, and dams or levees breaking. Coastal flooding occurs during hurricanes from heavy rainfall and storm surge, which causes sea level to rise temporarily at the shore.   Read more

Frequently Asked Questions

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
U.S. Geological Survey

Case Studies & Factsheets

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Introduction Dry wells improve stormwater drainage and aquifer recharge by providing a fast, direct route for rainwater to drain deep into underlying sediment and rock. Dry wells are most common in the western U.S. where clay or caliche layers slow down the natural drainage of water into underlying...

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What is a Dry Well? A dry well is a well that is used to transmit surface water underground and is deeper than its width at the surface (see image, below). Most dry wells are 30 to 70 feet deep and 3 feet wide at the surface. They are lined with perforated casings and can be filled with gravel or...

Pre-Ike (left) and post-Ike (right) ASTER imagery of Galveston Island, the Bolívar Peninsula, and the mainland in August 2006. Healthy (red) and dead (brown) vegetation shows storm surge inundation effects. Image Credit: Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observ.

Hurricanes bring not only intense rainfall, but also high winds and flooding. This flooding is powered by the hurricane storm surge: a rise in coastal sea level caused by lowered barometric pressure and by wind blowing the ocean onto the land. The result is that waves and currents affect areas that...

GOLI Online Courses

GOLI Course: Assessing, Mitigating, and Communicating Flood Risk. Image courtesy of Maria Coxx Lamm
Course Type: GOLI Online Course

Flooding is a perennial hazard for rivers and coasts alike. Every year, flooding results in billions of dollars of damage and the loss of dozens to hundreds of lives across the United States. Efforts to mitigate this hazard rely on the work of geoscientists, planners, and communicators to assess...

GOLI Course: Planning for Coastal Storm and Erosion Hazards; Image credit: USGS/USFWS - photo by Greg Thompson
Course Type: GOLI Online Course

Coastal hazards are a widespread challenge that cost millions (and sometimes billions) of dollars in the U.S. every year due to property loss and spending on mitigation measures. Based on the most recent U.S. Census, over 39% of the U.S. population lives in areas that may undergo significant...

Geological Surveys Database Publications

2017, Pennsylvania Geological Survey

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1999, California Geological Survey

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1995, California Geological Survey

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1978, Florida Geological Survey

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2018, Minnesota Geological Survey

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2002, Minnesota Geological Survey

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2008, Minnesota Geological Survey

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2002, Minnesota Geological Survey

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2014, Minnesota Geological Survey
Outcrops of peridotite adjacent to the Minnesota River near the town of Franklin in Renville County were sampled and petrographically characterized as part of a small study funded by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources in 1997. That study obtained mineral separates with the intent of...
2001, Arizona Geological Survey
Eight areas within Arizona have potential for commercial production of hydrocarbons or industrial gases (Figure 1). In addition, at least 14 Tertiary basins, which have not been adequately tested, contain evidence of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. These conclusions are based on the...